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初级笔译汉英翻译技巧

来源:考试在线2012-05-05 在线模考培训课程

  汉英翻译技巧的培养(translation competence development)应涉及以下内容:
  一.要培养对英语的语感和悟性(language intuition – open and alert mind to pick up idioms, specific expressions, etc.);
  二.要培养对英语的判断能力和鉴赏能力(evaluation capacity – judgment);
  三.要培养对英语的洞察能力和剖析能力(power of observation – insight);
  四.要培养对英语细微特征的反应能力(linguistic nuances alertness); -
  五.要培养对社会文化和跨文化交流的敏感性(social-cultural sensitivity – cross-cultural awareness);
  六.要培养对英语和汉语之间差别的意识 (sense of differences between Chinese and English);
  七.要培养对英语和汉语之间的辩证关系的认识 (awareness of the dialectic relationship between Chinese and English);
  八.要培养对英语“洋为中用”的意识 (“use things foreign to serve Chinese purposes”);
  九.要培养对英语 “学以致用” 的意识 (apply what you have learned in your translation);
  十.要培养对翻译的多层次、多角度的立体思维方式 (a multi-tier approach )。
  十一.一名称职的翻译工作者必须懂得什么是翻译的真谛(a clear conception of what translation is)。
  十二.一名优秀的翻译人员必须具有高屋建瓴的视角 (great powers of conception)。   
  各种能力和意识的培养都需要加强翻译意识的锻炼:   
   第一:要对翻译的重要性有深刻的、充分的认识,翻译的对与错、好与坏有时会产生绝然不同的效果。例如,天涯海角:不是the End of the World (应为Land’s End / End of the Earth) 。再如,一小时内免费送机票上门:不是We give you tickets free of charge within one hour.(应为We offer free delivery of your air tickets within one hour after your booking confirmation.)
  第二:要 善于仔细地、深入地、准确地理解中文原文的意思。这是因为准确的理解是做好翻译的前提。例如,摸着石头过河:不是crossing the river by feeling the stones。(而是wade across the stream by feeling the way )正确的做法应该是按照下面的步骤去做:
  1.“摸着石头过河”的字面意思如何理解?
  2.它有什么暗含或延伸的意思?
  3.英语里有没有相同或类似的说法?.如果有,就可以直接借用;如果没有,是进行直译还是意译?
  4.如果直译为 crossing the river by feeling the stones是否能被外国人理解?
  5.过河是乘船过(crossing by boat)还是淌水过(wading across),动词用什么形式?
  6.这里的河是大河、中河还是小河 (river, stream, brook, etc.)?
  7.摸的方式是用手摸还是用脚触?
  8.石头是大石头还是小石头(rock, stone, pebble, etc.)?
  9.如果意译为 learning by experiment / by trial and error是否可取?
  10.直译和意译相结合wading across the stream by feeling the way如何?
   第三:中文和英文的对应词有时意思并不相同或者不完全相同,不能照字面翻译。例如,他的英语说得真好,就像外国人一样。不是He speaks English so well, he sounds like a foreigner.而是He speaks English so well, he sounds like a native speaker.
  拉动经济增长:不是pull economic growth,而是push/lift/increase/boost/stimulate/spur/drive/fuel/speed up/accelerate/generate/ fire up/ propel/ facilitate/reinforce/aid/assist/support/promote/encourage/foster /(sustain/maintain)。素质教育:不是quality education,而是caliber-focused education 或trait-centered education。
  第四:有时候中文字面的意思表达不充分,部分信息被省略了或被隐藏起来了。例如,特 区是个窗口,是技术的窗口,管理的窗口,知识的窗口,也是对外政策的窗口。不是:The special zone is a window. It is a widow for introducing technology, management and knowledge. It is also a window for foreign policy.
  而是The special economic zones are a window opening onto the outside world. They are a window through which to bring in from abroad sophisticated technology, advanced managerial expertise and up-to-date know-how. It is also a window through which to disseminate China’s external policies.
  再如,退耕还林:不是return farmland to forest,而应该是restore “woodland-converted farm-plots” back for afforesting 。春运:不是spring transportation,而是the rush / peak season of passenger transportation during the Spring Festival。
  第五:有些中文词语没有什么特殊涵义,而与之相对应 的英文词语却有着特殊的涵义。例如,与“便宜”、“价廉”相对应的“cheap,”它有时候会带有贬义,成为“质次价低”的意,如cheap jewelries, cheap dresses, cheap furniture 等。我们可以说I bought a cheap watch for my child,对小孩无所谓;但不能说I bought a cheap dress for my girlfriend. 因为这样说会冒犯对方。在后一种情况下必须用inexpensive一词。

  第六:避免用中式英语进行表达,而要尽量用地道的英语进行表达。假如我们要把“我过去学过一些法语,但现在都忘了,都还给老师了”这句话翻译成英语, 最好不要说 I learned some French in the past. Now I have forgotten it. I’ve returned it to the teacher. 比较好的说法是 I used to know some French, but I’ve forgotten it. It has found its way back to my teacher.
  再比如我们要用英语说 “我攒了一大堆赃衣服,等着周末来洗,”最好不要说I have accumulated a large amount of dirty clothes. I’m going to wash them at the weekend. 比较好的说法是 I have a lot of laundry to catch up at the weekend.
  第七:根据不同场合,英语的表达有庄重(formal) 与随意(informal) 之分。比如“禁止吸烟”(No Smoking)、“请勿吸烟”(Thank you for not smoking) 和“为了您和他人的健康,请勿在此吸烟”(For hygiene’s sake, please refrain yourself from smoking in this room.)下面两组例子中都各包含有formal- normal - informal 三种文体风格(style):
  Please await instructions before dispatching items.
  Please wait for instructions before sending items off.
  Don’t send anything off until you’re told to do so.
  Essential measures should be undertaken at the earliest opportunity.
  One should undertake any necessary measures at the earliest opportunity.
  You should do whatever you have to as soon as you can.
   第八:要注意各行各业的不同术语的选择。比如我们要把“专业签证人员”翻译成英语,那么我们就要按照外交用语的习惯把它翻译为visa officers,而不应该照字面上翻译成specialized visa personnel。“安居工程” 的英译不是housing project for low-income urban residents,而应该按照社会经济用语的习惯翻译为the Affordable Housing Program; “信息化”的英译不是informatization 或informationization,而应该按照高科技行业习惯翻译为the spreading / sweeping information explosion / the information explosion process / trend; “外资企业”的英译不是overseas-funded enterprises,而应该按照外贸行业习惯翻译为enterprises with foreign investment / enterprises with foreign elements;再比如,高速公路上的警示语“请勿疲劳驾驶,”翻译成英语不是Don’t drive tiredly,按照交通法规术语应该翻译为Drowsy driving is dangerous 或Drive alert, arrive alive。
  第九:注意汉语和英语之间的文化差异。把“相声”翻译成英语不能只是翻译其形式,还要翻译其内涵。翻译成cross talk 外国人不明白;不如翻译为comic dialogue 更好懂。再如,假设我们要把“以外贸为龙头”翻译成英语,能不能直接翻译为with foreign trade as the dragon head呢?这样翻译是很难让外国人明白的,因为“以……为龙头”这个说法是源自耍龙灯的习俗,而多数外国人不一定熟悉中国人的这一习俗。为了取得好的翻 译效果,最好是用能够跨越文化障碍的表达方法,如“火车头”或“旗舰”:with foreign trade as the locomotive / flagship。
  但是不能机械地对待一切类似的翻译问题,我们的头脑里应该有一点辩证法。比如汉语的“鱼米之乡”(land of fish and rice),在英语里有一个类似的说法land of milk and honey,但由于land of fish and rice 外国人也能理解,不会造成跨化交流的障碍,所以我们可以采用land of fish and rice的说法,以保留一点中国的特色。
  第十:对于暗含的意思,必须把它明白地翻译出来,这样便于外国读者理解。例如,”东边日出西边雨,道是无晴却有晴”中的“晴”字,它是个双关语,有“天晴”和“爱情”的双重意思。我们在翻译的时候,必须做到二者兼顾:
  It’s sunny in the east but in the west it’s raining hard.
  Whether rain or sunshine, he’s the sunshine in my heart.
  再如,“这种鞋油为您足下增光”中的“足下”也是个双关语,翻译的时候也必须把两层意思都表达出来:This shoe shine shines your shoes and you look great.
   第十一:有时候,比如翻译诗句,光翻译字面上的意思是不够的,还必须把字里行间的深度、力量和美感表达出来。例如,朱门酒肉臭,路有冻死骨:不是 Wines and   meats become rotten in the mansions; Dead bones become rotten at the doors of them, 而是:In the mansions, rolling luxury allows wine and meat to go rotten away;On the streets, grinding poverty causes dead bodies to freeze and decay.
  第十二:汉语和英语在语法语序和句子结构上都有很大的差别。因此,在进行 中译英的时候必须要考虑到这些方面的变化。例如,改革开放开放取得了巨大的成就:不是The economic reform and the opening-up have made great achievements. 而是把“巨大的成就”当作主语,把主动语态变成被动语态:Great achievements have been made in the economic reform and in our efforts to open-up China to the outside world.
综上所述,一个好的翻译人员必须具有高屋见瓴的视角,要懂得翻译的真谛是什么。要想提高汉英翻译水平,必须加强对上述各种意识的培养。必须养成多层次、多角度的思维习惯。

 

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